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Disease Name: Zika Virus Infection

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Please review the Idaho Reportable Disease Rules (IDAPA 16.02.10) for the most up-to-date information.

The Idaho Bureau of Laboratories has announced they will no longer provide testing for Zika virus.  Special arrangements may be made as part of an investigation undertaken by the local health department.  http://healthandwelfare.idaho.gov/Portals/0/Health/Labs/SL_Blast_2017-03-17_Zika_Virus_Testing_Services.pdf

Overview / Case Definition

Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito.  The mosquito vectors typically breed in domestic water-holding containers; they are aggressive daytime biters and feed both indoors and outdoors near dwellings.

Nonhuman and human primates are likely the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) transmission occurs during outbreaks.  Perinatal, in utero, and possible sexual and transfusion transmission events have also been reported. Zika virus RNA has been identified in asymptomatic blood donors during an ongoing outbreak.

Most people infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic. Characteristic clinical findings are acute onset of fever with maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis. Other commonly reported symptoms include myalgia and headache.  Clinical illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and case fatality is low. However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection.

The Brazil Ministry of Health is also investigating the possible association between Zika virus and a reported increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly.

Due to concerns of microcephaly associated with maternal Zika virus infection, fetuses and infants of women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy should be evaluated for possible congenital infection and neurologic abnormalities.


CDC recommends that all pregnant women who have traveled to a place with a Zika outbreak get tested. It is especially important for pregnant women to see a doctor if they develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes during their trip or within 2 weeks after traveling to an area with Zika.

Because there is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection, CDC recommends that all pregnant women consider postponing travel to areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. If a pregnant woman travels to an area with Zika virus transmission, she should be advised to strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites.


Zika Virus Disease is considered an extraordinary occurrence of illness, under current Idaho Administrative rules, and should be reported within 1 day.

Reportable by Healthcare and Labs:

Reportable by Food Service Facility:

Suspect Reportable:

Reporting Timeframe: Report within one (1) day.

Diagnosis / Testing

There are no commercially available diagnostic tests for Zika virus disease. Testing is arranged through the Idaho State Bureau of Laboratories. Testing for Zika virus infection through public health agencies is indicated for:

Zika virus testing is performed at the CDC Arbovirus Diagnostic Laboratory, as follows:


 Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)



Cerebrospinal fluid

  Umbilical cord blood   

Amniotic fluid

 0.25 mL 

 Serology: Zika virus-specific IgM and Plaque-reduction neutralization testing (PRNT)  


Umbilical cord blood

0.5 mL

 Cerebrospinal fluid


1.0 mL

For further testing information, please contact:


No specific antiviral treatment is available for Zika virus disease.  Treatment is generally supportive and can include rest, fluids, and use of analgesics and antipyretics.

Zika may be spread through sexual transmission.  Care must be taken to prevent transmission to individuals who may be pregnant or who are seeking pregnancy.

Additional Information

The Idaho Bureau of Laboratories has announced they will no longer provide testing for Zika virus.  Special arrangements may be made as part of an investigation undertaken by the local health department.  http://healthandwelfare.idaho.gov/Portals/0/Health/Labs/SL_Blast_2017-03-17_Zika_Virus_Testing_Services.pdf

Click to Call South Central Public Health District

Click to Call the Idaho State Epidemiologist

Click to Call Idaho State Communications